Glossary of terms

AI:
Artificial Insemination
Calves:
livestock of zero to 12 months of age
Calving index:
length of time between a cow producing one calf and another
Clamps:
storage area for cropped food
Closed herd:
a herd which grows organically and no cows are bought in from other herds
Colostrum:
milk produced at the time of birth to provide antibodies against disease
Crimped maize:
just the grain of maize, so not including the stalk or leaves
Culling:
the selling of cows to the market or their slaughter because of illness
Dairy products:
includes milk, butter, cheese, cream, ice cream, milk powder and yoghurt
Ear tags:
clipped to both ears to help identification of the livestock
Followers:
the heifers and calves in the total livestock number
Heifers:
livestock of 12 to 24 months of age, who have not produced a calf
Herd:
the total number of cows in milk and dry
In-calf heifers:
heifers that are pregnant
Lactation curve:
the milk production curve of a cow after giving birth to a calf
Parlour:
where the cows are milked
Passport:
paperwork needed for livestock so that it can be sold later into the market
ppl:
pence per litre
Rotation:
the rotating use of land, from grass to maize and sometimes to wholecrop
Silage:
cropped grass or maize, which is stored in clamps as food for the livestock
Single Payment:
payment made for land management within environment guidelines by the Rural Payments Agency on behalf of the EU Common Agriculture Policy
Slurry:
the solid and liquid waste produced by the livestock
TMR:
total mixed ration
Wholecrop:
oats, triticale and wheat, sometimes grown as food for livestock
Yield:
the production of milk from a cow, measured by us as litres by cow per day